Now we are going to learn RAC environment.
In a database whenever you query from V$database to know the name of the database and want to know the name of the instance from v$thread they return similar result. Suppose,
SQL> select name from v$database;
SQL> select instance from v$thread;
which indicates in the database there is only one instance that is database have a one-to-one relationship between datafiles and the instance. Oracle RAC environments, however, have a one-to-many relationship between datafiles and instances. In RAC environments multiple instances form a single database. The instances can reside on different servers which is referred as nodes in RAC environment.
• In RAC environment the set of interconnected instances that allows the servers to work together is called cluster. The physical structures that make up the database must reside on shared storage that is accessible from all servers that are part of the cluster. Each server in the cluster runs the Oracle RAC software.
• In RAC database each instance has its own memory and background processes but every instances share the same data files. So while any data need to write or retrieve they use the same datafiles but each instance use it’s own memory.
Now question is if one instance read data and modify it in the buffer cache and if another instance need that data then how oracle manages it?
• In RAC Oracle uses Cache Fusion Technology to synchronize the data stored in the buffer cache of each cluster database instance. Cache Fusion moves current data blocks (which reside in memory) between database instances, rather than having one database instance write the data blocks to disk and requiring another database instance to reread the data blocks from disk.
• When a data block is needed for one instance which resides in the buffer cache of another instance, Cache Fusion transfers the data block directly between the instances using the interconnect, enabling the Oracle RAC database to access and modify data as if the data resided in a single buffer cache.
Oracle RAC provides high availability and scalability.
If one instance fails in RAC environment still another instance can do the task and thus prevents the server from being a single point of failure.
In a RAC environment transactions are distributed over multiple instances. Thus minimize load from one instance.
• Never mix with oracle clusterware with Oracle RAC. The Oracle Clusterware is software that when installed on servers, enables the servers to be bound together to operate as if they were one server. Before you install oracle RAC you need to install clusterware. Without clusterware you can’t install oracle RAC.